& Theology 

In ancient Greece, there were many different philosophical schools that sought to understand the nature of the universe, the gods, the human condition, and the purpose of life. Exploring these philosophical schools offers insights into how the ancient Greeks thought about the gods and the world.

Ultimately, it is for you to decide which philosophical school, if any, resonates the most and how you can incorporate their ideas into your practice. Below you will find some resources to help you in that, chosen for their relevance to our theological context. 


It isn't practical to give a full overview of all ancient Greek philosophical schools in this space, but here's a quick run down of a few to get you started:

Pre-Socratic philosophers: were interested in understanding the natural world 

Sophists: emphasised practical skills and rhetorical techniques. 

Platonists: believed in the existence of a transcendent realm of eternal truths. One of the most theologically focussed ancient schools. 

Peripatetics: the school of Aristotle emphasised empirical observation and logic. 

Cynics: rejected conventional social norms and values. 

Stoics: emphasised self-control and living in accordance with nature.

Epicureans: believed that pleasure was the highest good, but that true pleasure could only be attained through modest and simple pleasures.

The Pythagoreans: were focused on the study of mathematics, music, and the underlying order and harmony of the universe, which they believed reflected the divine nature of reality.

Apollon with Lyre.
Photo by Hert Niks on Unsplash 

Learning Resources 

Delphic Philosophy

An exploratory series of videos and an open anthology of readings tracing threads in ancient Mediterranean thought, circling the twin themes of psychological self-knowledge (gnothi seauton) and self-care (epimeleia tou heautou).

Comes with a reader for those who want to follow along closely. 

Foundations, Worldview & Cosmology

Greek pillars.

The Delphic Maxims

The 147 maximstrans. Martiana, Wikipedia

Records of "The Commandments of the Seven Wise Men" in the 3rd c. B.C.  –  A.N. Oikonomides

Commentary on the Delphic Maxims – Martiana

Pat Norman – a secular reading

Mountain at night.


Theogony – Hesiod
trans. Christopher Kelk

The Odes – Pindar

trans. Richmond Lattimore

Hymns – Callimachus
trans. A.W. Mair


Photo by kazuend on Unsplash  
Pillar scrolls.


The Golden Verses of Pythagoras
trans Florence M. Firth

Concerning natureParmenides
trans. Juan and Maria Balboa

Fragments of Empedocles
trans. William E. Leonard

The Chaldean Oracles  
trans. Ruth Majercik (modified, includes the Greek), Charles Stein (applies poetic license)

But those with the courage to have lived three times in either realm,  while keeping their souls free from all unjust deeds, travel the road of Zeus 

   to the tower of Kronos, where ocean breezes blow round 

the Isle of the Blessed, and flowers of gold are ablaze, some from radiant trees on land, while the water

    nurtures others; with these they weave garlands for their hands and crowns for their heads, 

in obedience to the just counsels of Rhadamanthys, whom the great father keeps ever seated at his side, the husband of Rhea, she who has 

    the highest throne of all.

– Pindar, Olympian 2 (Loeb)


Platonism discusses the nature of the gods, the concept of the divine, and the relationship between the divine and human beings. As well as topics such as the immortality of the soul, the idea of divine justice, and the nature of reality.


Important Theological works

trans. Benjamin Jowett

trans. Juan and Maria Balboa

trans. Juan and Maria Balboa

trans. David Horan

Plutarch's Theology

On Superstition   trans. F.C Babbitt

Isis and Osiris   trans. F.C Babbitt

The E at Delphi   trans. T. Browne

Oracles at Delphi No Longer Given in Verse
trans. Prickard (revised)

The Obsolescence of Oracles
trans. F.C Babbitt

On the Sign (daimon) of Socrates trans. P.H. De Lacy and B. Einarson


On the Gods and the World – Sallustius
trans. Gilbert Murray

On the Egyptian Mysteries – Iamblichus
trans. Emma C. Clarke, or Thomas Taylor

Enneads Plotinus
trans. Juan and Maria Balboa

Elements of Theology Proclus
trans. Juan and Maria Balboa



The Myth in Plato's Phaedrus –    Pierre Grimes (YouTube)

Podcasts on Plato – Ancient Greece Declassified

Reading Guides for Plato – Michael Griffin

The Soul’s Inner Statues – Kaye Boesme
a Platonising approach to theology and praxis


Stoic ideas have had a significant impact on Hellenic polytheist theology, particularly in discussions of ethics, virtue, and the nature of the divine. Many modern practitioners find inspiration in Stoic philosophy and strive to incorporate its teachings into their spiritual practices.


The Philosophy of Stoicism Massimo Piggliucci

Stoicism as a Philosophy for Ordinary Life Massimo Piggliucci

Stoic Philosophy Explained - Philosophy Tube

The Philosophy of Marcus Aurelius Einzelgänger

What is Apatheia, Ataraxia, and Eudaimonia Einzelgänger

The Stoics on the Gods Martiana

Stoicism Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Ancient Sources

Meditations Marcus Aurelius
trans. Waterfield, Hays, or Hammond

Enchiridion & Discourses – Epictetus
trans. Hard or Dobbin

Letters from a Stoic – Seneca
trans. Campbell

Contemporary Books

Stoicism and the Art of Happiness – Donald Robertson

How to Be a Stoic – Massimo Pigliucci

Podcasts & Lectures   

Stoic Coffee Break – Erick Cloward (spotify)

Stoic Meditations  – Massimo Pigliucci (spotify)

Think Like a Stoic – Massimo Pigliucci (audible)